Question: How do I date my BC Rich?

Where do they make BC Rich guitars?

Current Handmade guitars are still quite good but be aware they are actually made in Mexico. The USA guitars all say made in USA on them. BC Rich has indicated they have plans to make them in the USA again but so far its been about 12 years since the were made in the USA. NJ originally stood for Nagoya Japan.

Where are BC Rich Warlocks made?

Current Handmade guitars are still quite good but be aware they are actually made in Mexico. The USA guitars all say made in USA on them. BC Rich has indicated they have plans to make them in the USA again but so far its been about 12 years since the were made in the USA. NJ originally stood for Nagoya Japan.

When How do I date my BC Rich? began, the unified Egyptian state was only about 300 years old and when it came to an end, the state still had nearly 2,000 years left ahead of it. Remoteness in time is one of the main difficulties we encounter when we look for sources of information about the Old Kingdom. Many simply have not survived.

We know infinitely more about the wealthy people of Egypt than we do about the ordinary people, as almost all the monuments were made for the rich and influential. Houses in which ordinary Egyptians lived have not been preserved, and when most people died they were buried in simple graves with few funerary goods.

The Old Kingdom pyramids at Giza Most of our traditional sources of information about the Old Kingdom are those concerned with death and the rituals surrounding death: these include pyramids, tombs and graves, but also statues, reliefs and paintings. Even papyri come mainly from pyramid temples. But this does not mean that death was the Egyptians' only preoccupation. There are other reasons why so much of our evidence is based on funeral rites.

Egyptian towns and villages were situated in the Nile valley, where old houses were pulled down and new ones built on the same spot, because space was valuable - so little remains of the older buildings.

Pyramids and tombs, by contrast, were built on desert margins, where the space was not needed for other buildings, so were left to tell their tale centuries after they were built. Also, while domestic housing was made of sun-dried bricks, pyramids and tombs were built of stone - so their chances of survival were infinitely better.

Annual records There was no history writing during the Old Kingdom but there were annals, brief records of important events. These are only incompletely preserved. We also have lists of kings, although they date from later periods, mostly from the New Kingdom, which started about a thousand years after the Old Kingdom ended. Unfortunately, his work has survived only in brief excerpts. The king-list in the temple of Sethos I at Abydos, showing Old Kingdom names The Egyptians counted the years of each king's reign, but began again when a new king came to the throne.

There are no astronomical dates known from the Old Kingdom, which could have provided us with fixed chronological points. The only way of establishing exactly when each king ruled is by adding up the lengths of the reigns known from the lists of kings but these are not complete or from the dates that survive on contemporary monuments although we cannot be sure that the last year of the reign is recorded.

Modern scientific techniques, especially radiocarbon dating based on the changes in the radioactive isotope C14are helpful, but the margin of error is still too large. Tomb texts The Pyramid Texts on the wall of the burial chamber of the Pyramid of Teti, Saqqara Practically everything that we know about Egyptian kings derives from their monuments.

The temples for the king's posthumous cult were decorated with reliefs and contained many statues, all of which give us information about the role of the king in Egyptian society. Scenes that show real events are rare.

How do I date my BC Rich?

We must not forget that the purpose of these reliefs was to show an ideal state of affairs, which the king wished to last forever, not the contemporary reality.

Documents written on papyri were found in some pyramid temples, especially at Abusir.

How do I date my BC Rich?

They concern such matters as lists of priests on duty, records of offerings brought to the temple, accounts, inventories of temple equipment and passes authorizing access to the temple. Several settlements of priests, and of craftsmen and artists, involved in the running of pyramid temples, have been located, in particular at Giza. Representations carved on the walls of tombs include scenes of everyday life on the owner's estates and so show how even ordinary people lived and worked.

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We must be rather careful when interpreting these scenes and must not take them entirely at face value. They were included in order to play a role in the tomb owner's afterlife, not as an accurate record. Sometimes, especially in the later part of the Old Kingdom, the tombs contained biographical texts. Many are just self-praising but others are real records of the tomb owner's achievements. This is how How do I date my BC Rich?

of them, an official called Weni, described a mission assigned to him by King Merenre of the Sixth Dynasty: 'His Majesty sent me to Hatnub in order to bring a great altar of travertine of Hatnub. I brought this altar down for him in 17 days. After it had been quarried at Hatnub, I had it transported downstream in the barge that I had made for it, a barge of acacia wood of 60 cubits in length and 30 cubits in width.

It was built in 17 days and in the third month of summer, when there was no water on sandbanks, it was safely moored at the pyramid of King Merenre.

But important texts have been found at the sites of some of these temples, especially at Koptos modern Qift and Abydos, both in Upper Egypt. The texts are copies of documents that were originally written on papyrus, and are concerned with the temples' administration, especially endowments and exemptions from taxes and forced labour. The aim of these enterprises was to bring back stone for building and for the making of statues, also semi-precious stones turquoise and possibly copper.

The royal mission which was sent with the god's treasurer Hepy to the terraces of turquoise. There served with him: pilots and quarry-masters Bekenptah and Udjai.

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Certain activities were never shown, for example pyramid building, and written documents concerning such works have not survived. Modern scientific methods are now beginning to provide a wealth of information on aspects of the Old Kingdom society - aspects that we have not known much about, until now.

The study of pottery has become very useful, especially in the search for chronological clues and trade contacts. The study of botanical plant and faunal animal remains can show us how people in the Old Kingdom lived - which plants they cultivated, which animals they bred, and what they ate.

Examination of human remains informs us of the Egyptians' state of health. Research concerning different types of stone and metal can also be very revealing: when we establish from where these materials came, and in what quantities, we can make deductions about trade contacts, expeditions sent to procure these materials, the state of technology, and so on. There is no one way How do I date my BC Rich?

searching for sources of information concerning the Old Kingdom. They are all interconnected, and each has a contribution to make. Egyptologists must be prepared to examine any kind of evidence available, whether it is 'traditional' archaeological and art historical - based on monuments; or philological - based on inscriptionsor 'non-traditional' mostly new scientific techniques. They must be scavengers of information, leaving no source of information neglected, and must be constantly searching for new approaches.

Find out more Books When the Pyramids Were Built. This work continues How do I date my BC Rich? at sites such as Amarna, Memphis and Qasr Ibrim in Egyptian Nubia, and is published in full in a series of monographs, the annual Journal of Egyptian Archaeology and bi-annual magazine, Egyptian Archaeology.

Membership of the Society is open to all those interested in ancient Egypt, indeed without its members' subscriptions the Society could not continue to operate. Founded in 1683, it is one of the oldest public museums in the world. About the author Jaromir How do I date my BC Rich? studied Egyptology and archaeology at Charles University, Prague.

Since 1971 he How do I date my BC Rich? been editor of the Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and Paintings at the Griffith Institute, Oxford.

He has taken part in excavations and epigraphic surveys in Nubia, Abusir, Saqqara and Memphis. He has published several books and a number of specialised papers in Egyptological journals. His latest book is Egyptian Art London, 1999. His next book, also on ancient Egyptian art, will be published by Phaidon in 2003.

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